Archive for the ‘Cells’ Category

Taken from Accessed on 24 September 2013

African Clawed Frog. (Xenopus laevis)

Hello All!

I am a cell found inside this wonderful creature. My beginnings first starts, by stimulation of the pituitary gland, which kicks off the production of myself and my brothers and sisters. When my dad becomes mature, my role is to get out there and find myself a female companion, with the hopes and dreams into developing and growing into a tall,awesome, figure like my dad.

I have an three sections to my body. My head has an acrosomal cap on the anterior and below has a nucleus, where all my DNA can be found. My acrosomal head, contains enzymes, which I heard is the surest way to a woman’s heart. In the middle, mitochondria can be found, this gives me energy and my tail helps me to about freely.

Any Ideas to what I am ?

Feel free to comment your answers or thoughts on what you think I might be. ¬† ¬†ūüôā

Stay tuned for more exciting news from the Cloaca. [ Huge hint ūüėČ ]

Brandon. c:


Garvey, N. 2000. “Xenopus laevis” (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed September 24, 2013 at

Kaplan, Melissa. 1995. Natural History of the Upland Clawed Frog. Accessed on September 24, 2013. accessed on September 24, 2013.

The following is a review on a published article, “The Effect of Enzymes on Digestion.”, by Michael R. Bedford. Please note that his writings¬†dealt with digestion in Birds.

Contrary to popular belief, that nutrients are always fully digested and absorbed in the blood stream, it is very unlikely that they ever do. Nutrients digestibilities vary between different dietary substances, however there are fours processes that help aid with digestibility. These four mechanisms are:

  • Deteriorating¬†the cell wall¬†
  • Destroying ANF’s (supplements)
  • Supplying the Host’s Enzymes
  • Using intestinal bacteria

Destroying the cell wall.

Taken from www,newscenter.lbl,gov.

In this mechanism, Beta-glucanase, an enzymes, was used to break down the complex cell wall, rapidily allowing amylases and proteases to break down the cell’s content.

Getting rid of the ANF’s.

ANFs’ are supplements such as, non-starch polysaccharides, proteins, and amino acids.

It was observed that Beta-glucanase turned out to be soluble in barley. This was due to the Beta-glucan component being dissolved completely by the endosperm of the cell wall. ANF’s create viscosity, which reduces the effect of enzymes. Enzymes used to reduce intestinal viscosity are believed to improve digestion in the intestinal tract.

Viscosity. Taken from

Supplying the Host’s Enzymes.

Latest investigations has lead researchers to believe that the digestive tract may not have adequate enzymatic and absorption capacity to deal with all kinds of diets. However, work done by Bedford and Classen, proves that by adding the host enzymes, through means of supplements do in fact increase the rate at which these substances are digested.


Microbial presence?

The are millions of microbes present in your digestive tract. These microbes aid in digestion by breaking down the digestive substances to feed their own needs and produce, in some cases, helpful by products. Evidence to support the presence of microbes in our digestive tract is due to the presences of their by products in faeces.

Bacteria on the walls of the intestines


Bedford. Michael. R. 1996. ” The Effects of Enzymes on Digestion.”¬†The Journal of Applied Poultry Research.¬†Applied Poultry Inc, 1996. Accessed on April 11 2013.

Classen, H.L, T.A. Scotl, G.C. Irish, P. Hucl, M, and M.R Bedford, 1995.”The relationship of chemical¬†and physical measurements to the apparent¬†metabolize¬†energy (AME) of wheat when fed to broiler¬†chickens with and without and enzyme source”.Proc. of 2nd European Symp. on Feed Enzymes, Pages 65-77¬†Noordwijkerhout, NL. Accessed on April 11 2013.


Prokaryotes are organisms that lacks a nucleus, or any membrane enclosed organelles. Most are found to be unicellular, made up of only one cell, however there are some that are found to be multicellular. In prokaryotes, all of their DNA, proteins and metabolites are all found in the same area surrounded by a cell membrane.

Eukaryotes, on the other hand, are organisms that consist of membrane bounded organelles. They contain a nucleus(which contains DNA), mitochondria and other membrane bounded organelles.


From the picture above, we can see that both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have similar features, such as¬†ribosomes, cytoplasm. Prokaryotes contains 70s ribosomes, while, eukaryotes contain 80s ribosomes. The ‘s’ refers to the rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge, and can be thought of in terms of size. The eukaryote cells being more complex is no doubt bigger than prokaryotes, Prokaryotes reproduce asexually,by binary fission, this is where the cell becomes mature enough, the ¬†genetic material replicates,and the cell begins to cleave and separate forming two identical daughter cells. Eukaryotes reproduce via ¬†nucleic division, which is usually mitosis, where each daughter cell receives one copy of each chromosome. Eukaryotes also reproduce sexually, through meiosis, where the daughter cell receives one copy of each chromosome from each cell.

The cell.

Posted: February 12, 2013 in Cells

For all those that did science growing up, knows what a cell is. A cell is the basic unit that can carry out living functions. These living functions are :
1) A high degree of chemical complexity and microscopic organisation.
2) Systems for extracting , transforming and using energy from the environment.
3) A capacity for precise self-replication and self assembly. ( precise because all cells divide through mitosis, with the exception of sex cells).
4) Mechanisms for sensing and responding to alterations in their environment.
5) Defined functions for each of their components and regulated interactions among them.
6) A history of evolutionary change.

All cells share certain features. Some of which are: the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, nucleus or a nucleoid.

One of the most interesting things for me, was coming across the term cytosol. The cytosol is actually the aqueous liquid within the cell that contains enzymes ,ribosomes, coenzynes, and the RNA that encode them. So for example,say you had a cross section diagram of the cell with three layers, plasma membrane , cytoplasm, and the nucleus in the middle, the cytosol would be found in the cytoplasm region surround the nucleus. Well this is how I pictured it.

Until next time! (: